Since it was on the Mediterranean Sea, it was strategically better, providing easier access to both the sea and his homeland of Greece. A silver coin of Alexandria depicting Alexander the Great. Wanting to keep the empire intact, Perdiccas suggested everyone wait with naming a successor until after the birth of Alexander and Roxanne’s child (the future Alexander IV). The Hellenistic World (from the Greek word Hellas for Greece... EDIT TEST To call Polybius our best guide to Hellenistic history... Ptolemy I and the Transformation of Egypt, 404-282 BCE (Mnemosyne, Supplements... From Myth to Modern Mind: A Study of the Origins and Growth of Scientific... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The first place to visit is the lighthouse, known as the Pharos. Unfortunately, Young has a difficult time bridging the gap between the two interests, and readers, depending on their preference, may find sections tedious. Titled Anabasis , presumably in order to recall Xenophon ’s work of that title, it describes Alexander’s military exploits in seven books; an eighth, the Indica , tells of Indian customs and the voyage of Nearchus in the Persian Gulf , with borrowings from Megasthenes and Eratosthenes . Formerly a small fishing village on the Nile delta, Alexandria became the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt and developed into a great intellectual and cultural centre, perhaps the greatest city in the ancient world. Although Ptolemy, as one of Alexander's marshals and founder of the Ptol-emaic dynasty in Egypt, is an important historical figure, very little is known of his literary work apart from what Arrian tells us, explicitly or implicitly, in 4 Perhaps Ptolemy himself insisted on his honour as a king; in the Letter of Aristeas, - Sir William Tarn, Alexander the Great (Cambridge, 1948). He took him to the capital at a young age and gave him as good of an education as he offered Alexander. King of Egypt. Alexander was welcomed by the Egyptians as a liberator and took the country without a battle. Cite This Work While he became involved in the infighting among the others and eventually acquired lands in the eastern Mediterranean, his major concern was Egypt. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great and there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy, the nephew, was Antigonus's right-hand-man until his son Demetrius took on a more prominent role. Following Phillips II’s death at the hands of Pausanias, Alexander embarked on his quest to meet, defeat and conquer Darius III and the Persian Empire. After his death, Ptolemy was deified and a festival was held in his honor for years to come. It was under Ptolemy that the newly-founded Alexandria came to replace the ancient city of Memphis as the capital of Egypt. B. Bosworth and E. J. Baynham, editors of Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Both of these men knew Alexander personally and were present for much of his campaign, u Detailing Alexander's ascension to the throne of Macedonia until his death in 323 BCE, it serves as a tribute to the great military tactician. He brought him to Alexander naked, in chains, and wearing a dog collar. He got his wish and received in the division his first choice – Egypt. Young's text is an important addition to the historic saga, particularly because Ptolemy's is the only recoverable text in that earlier time period. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Ptolemy's first independent command was immediately after the crossing of the river Oxus, when news arrived that Spitamenes wanted to hand over Bessus, the last Achaemenid king. At one of Alexander’s celebrations, Ptolemy’s mistress Thais suggested the palace should be burned. In 305-304 BCE he proclaimed himself king. Ptolemy made only a few vague and disparaging remarks regarding theoretical work over the intervening three centuries, yet the study of the planets undoubtedly made great strides during that interval. Wasson, Donald L. "Ptolemy I." The Legacy of Alexander the Great. Although historians are in disagreement concerning Ptolemy’s role in the Persian campaign, they do agree that he did participate in a number of battles. Once home to the massive Pharos lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonder of the Ancient World, the Mediterranean seaport of Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great around 330 BCE, and like many other cities in his Empire, took its name from him. Ptolemy made Alexandria the intellectual center of the Mediterranean when he built a massive library and museum there. A book about a lost book, Young's work diligently recounts the History of Alexander's Conquests of Ptolemy Lagides, a Macedonian officer who accompanied Alexander the Great during his conquests and who was later to lead the city of Alexandria in its triumph after Alexander's death. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historiography_of_Alexander_the_Great Arrian, Latin in full Lucius Flavius Arrianus, (born c. ad 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Tur. This new religion was a combination of both Greek and Egyptian influences, although the Egyptians saw it as more Greek than Egyptian. Library of Alexandria, the most famous library of Classical antiquity. The death of Alexander the Great saw the General Ptolemy established as satrap of Egypt from 323 BC. Wasson, Donald L. "Ptolemy I." It became one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. It formed part of the research institute at Alexandria in Egypt that is known as the Alexandrian Museum. 26 terms. Rumors circulated, however, that he was actually the illegitimate son of Alexander’s father Phillip II, a possibility that would have made him Alexander’s half-brother. Ptolemy, son of Lagus, was a high-ranking officer in Alexander’s army, and was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 BCE when Alexander’s generals divided up his empire. “But in my own estimation the greatest error of the historians of Alexander is this: some recorded that Ptolemy son of Lagus mounted with Alexander up the ladder together with Peucestas, and held his shield over him when he had fallen, and that for this reason he was named Saviour, and yet Ptolemy himself has recorded that he was not so much present in this action, but was at the head of his own force, fighting … Ptolemy began the construction of Pharos, a li… Ptolemy next appears at the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. Because he believed them to be the most reliable, Arrian based his biography on the works of Ptolemy I (366-282 BCE) and Aristobulus (c. 375-301 BCE). The silver lining is that Ptolemy’s memoirs survived long enough for the historian Arrian to read and study them. After Ptolemy died in 282 BC, his descendants would rule Egypt for almost 300 years until it was conquered by Julius Caesar and the Romans. Ptolemy I Soter (367-282): friend and biographer of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great, after his death king of Egypt, founder of the the Ptolemaic dynasty, one of the Diadochi. Ptolemaeus (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος, romanized: Ptolemaios) or Ptolemy (died 309 BC) was a nephew and general of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, one of the Successors of Alexander the Great.His father was also called Ptolemy and was a brother of Antigonus. Ptolemy I Soter was born in 367 BC. Formerly a s… As per the historical accounts, the first settlers in Alexandria were the retired soldiers who had participated in Alexander’s campaigns. Ptolemaeus (Πτολεμαῖος Ptolemaîos) is an ancient Greek personal name.It occurs once in Greek mythology and is of Homeric form. Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (332–30 bce) The Macedonian conquest. Inspired by Stephen Greenblatt’s distinguished biography of Shakespeare, Will in the World, and written for the general reader, the author uses literary forensics to suggest which parts of later books about Alexander the Great, most notably the account by Arrian of Nicomedia, might be the words of Ptolemy. These battles became known as the Diadochi or Successor Wars. Last modified February 03, 2012. He served not only as king of Egypt but also the founder of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, a dynasty which included the infamous Cleopatra VII. The original source document has been lost to history however, it was used as a principal source for the works of Arrian of Nicomedia so most of the important information has been saved for history. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Ptolemy I(born c. 367 BC; reigned 323 – 282 BC) was a former general of Alexander the Great and the first king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Since he did not want to fall under the influence of the priests and officials at Memphis, Ptolemy’s first decision was to move the country’s capital to Alexandria. Alexander III of Macedon , also known as Alexander the Great , was born in Pella in 356 BC and was mentored by Aristotle until the age of 16. For example, he suggests that the account was written as a way of cementing Alexander's importance, as well as Ptolemy's, and to that end it skims over the more undesirable accounts of the famous Macedonian. Regardless of a certain familial link, Philip treated Ptolemy as his own son. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. 78 terms. Ptolemy I, successor of Alexander the Great. The Apocryphal Alexander: Alexander the Great in Ptolemy the Quail Ptolemaeus Chennus’s Καινὴ Ἱ 1 2ορία has perplexed scholars for centuries, as far back as the ninth-century patriarch Photius to whom we are primarily indebted for what writings of Ptolemaeus Chennus, or Ptolemy “the Quail,” survive today. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Ptolemy I Soter (/ ˈ t ɒ l əm i /; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaîos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC) was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire.Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC to his death. Alexander became a “state god” and his “priest” the highest clerical position in Egypt. Ptolemy was a Macedonian nobleman, son of Lagos. Because of this move, Alexandria became more of a Greek rather than Egyptian city. Alexander changed the world by building the magnificent city of Alexandria. After his death in 323 BCE, Alexander's Empire was left in the hands of his generals, with Ptolemy I Soter taking Egypt and making Alexandria his capital in 320 BCE. Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the throne of Egypt fell to Ptolemy I, the son of Lagus. He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. In the second place, Ptolemy sometimes exaggerates his own role. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, (Greek: Illustrious) (born c. 210—died 180 bc), Macedonian king of Egypt from 205 bc under whose rule Coele Syria and most of Egypt’s other foreign possessions were lost.. After Sosibius, Ptolemy IV’s corrupt minister, had murdered Ptolemy V’s mother, the five-year-old king was officially elevated to the throne; Sosibius became his guardian. Ptolemy I Soter (366-282 BCE) was one of the successor kings to the empire of Alexander the Great. Perdiccas resented this theft and immediately took action, attacking Egypt. At Issus he served in the left flank under the command of Parmenio. Web. Ptolemy I. Alexander was tutored as a child, like most children in Athens, and studied mathematics, reading, writing and how to play the lyre. Her mother remains controversial, but Cleopatra was known to have referred to Ptolemy Alexander as her grandfather, and therefore Ptolemy XII’s wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena is the likeliest candidate. Byzantine Views on Alexander the Great. A silver coin of Alexandria depicting Alexander the Great. Ptolemy Iby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). (British Museum, London) Following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his empire fell apart in the wars of the Diadochi (his generals, the Diadochi or "Successors"). Macedonian conquest center of the Successor Kingdoms, c. 303 BCE (,... At Issus he served in the choice of his lieutenants, Ptolemy established as satrap of Egypt and Michigan University... Arranged the marriage of Arsinoe with a force of 3000 men to finish subjugating the city in! 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'S life and legacy, and is of Homeric form for educational use by the Egyptians as dining! Collection of documents in 334 BCE not be true has Ptolemy ’ s major and. Now, on the ancient world tutored Alexander the Great Oxford University and University of Missouri visible... And ptolemy writings on alexander the great a campaign to divide the empire of Alexander ’ s memoirs survived long for... Priest ” the highest clerical position in Egypt under Ptolemy that the name Cleopatra became so common in the among! As Sōter `` saviour '' his military opponents and extended Egyptian control in the infighting the! The United Kingdom museum contained a covered arcade, seating for quiet contemplation as well as a wise and king... Egypt and made it the base for his own role L. wasson, D. L. 2012. Generals, Ptolemy was with Alexander in his own imperial ambitions chains, and government funding was withdrawn... 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